Albino Holtzman, albino Wistar and hooded HS rats were injected fortnightly for 14 weeks with human glomerular basement membrane (GBM) emulsified in Freund's complete adjuvant. Half of the rats were pretreated with Freund's complete adjuvant and some were unilaterally nephrectomized. Anti-GBM antibody glomerulonephritis, characterized by proteinuria (greater than 100 mg/16 h) and a diffuse linear deposition of host immunoglobulin along the glomerular basement membrane, was first detected in Holtzman rats 4 weeks after treatment with GBM had begun, and had developed in 69% of these rats by 15 weeks. In contrast, none of the similarly treated Wistar or HS rats became proteinuric at any time, although a few showed weak glomerular fluorescence at the end of the experiment. Thus Holtzman rats are susceptible, and HS and Wistar rats are resistant to experimental anti-GBM antibody glomerulonephritis. Pretreatment with Freund's complete adjuvant apparently shortened the induction period of the experimental disease in the Holtzman rats whereas unilateral nephrectomy appeared to decrease their susceptibility to it.