The excellent tolerance of bio-inert aluminium oxide ceramic after being implanted into the middle ear has been shown by our electron microscopic studies and clinical experience over 4 years. Our implants developed for ossicular chain reconstruction were covered by a delicate middle ear mucosa within a few weeks. We have observed no foreign body reactions. The ceramic implants are distinguished by the almost unlimited number of forms or shapes into which they can be ground quickly and precisely during operation. We value Al2O3 ceramic implants because there is no bony fixation with the surrounding bone but rather a joint-like connection with the remaining parts of the ossicular chain.