In this study, we evaluated our early results of liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma. Between January 2003 and June 2006, 26 patients (4 women and 22 men; age, 1.1-65 years) with preoperatively diagnosed or incidental hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) underwent liver transplantation at our center. Inclusion criteria (independent of tumor size and number of tumor nodules) were no invasion of major vascular structure and no evidence of extrahepatic disease. In 13 of the patients, tumors were beyond the Milan criteria. At this writing, with a mean follow-up of 16.5 months (range, 1-31 months), all patients are doing well with excellent graft function. The longest survival is 2.5 years, and our patient survival rate is 100%. There has been only one tumor recurrence that was 4 months after liver transplantation. Liver transplantation provides long patient and disease-free survival, even in patients with HCC that exceeds the Milan criteria.