The presence of minimal residual disease (MRD) is a risk factor for relapse among children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and eliminating MRD can usually improve survival rates. To investigate the effect of expanded activated autologous lymphocytes (EAALs) combined with chemotherapy on eliminating MRD and improving survival rates of children with AML, we retrospectively analyzed the results of 115 children with low- or intermediate-risk AML with MRD treated at the Pediatric Hematological Center, Peking University People's Hospital, between January 2010 and January 2016. The patients were assigned to the chemotherapy plus EAAL (combined therapy) group (n = 61) and chemotherapy group (n = 54). The MRD-negativity rates were 95.1% (58/61) in the combined therapy group and 63.0% (34/54) in the chemotherapy group (P < 0.0001) during consolidation treatment. The 5-year event-free survival rate was higher in the combined therapy group than in the chemotherapy group (86.3 ± 4.6% vs. 72.1 ± 6.1%, P = 0.025). No severe adverse event was observed after EAAL infusion. The present study showed that EAAL combined with chemotherapy could improve the MRD-negativity rate and event-free survival rate among children with AML with low level MRD-positive status. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.