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Exercise-induced oxidative stress and hypoxic exercise recovery

Authors
  • Ballmann, Christopher1
  • McGinnis, Graham1
  • Peters, Bridget1
  • Slivka, Dustin2
  • Cuddy, John3
  • Hailes, Walter3
  • Dumke, Charles3
  • Ruby, Brent3
  • Quindry, John1
  • 1 Auburn University, School of Kinesiology, Auburn, AL, 36830, USA , Auburn (United States)
  • 2 University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE, USA , Omaha (United States)
  • 3 University of Montana, Department of Health and Human Performance, Missoula, MT, USA , Missoula (United States)
Type
Published Article
Journal
European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Jan 03, 2014
Volume
114
Issue
4
Pages
725–733
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s00421-013-2806-5
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Yellow

Abstract

Hypoxia due to altitude diminishes performance and alters exercise oxidative stress responses. While oxidative stress and exercise are well studied, the independent impact of hypoxia on exercise recovery remains unknown. Accordingly, we investigated hypoxic recovery effects on post-exercise oxidative stress. Physically active males (n = 12) performed normoxic cycle ergometer exercise consisting of ten high:low intensity intervals, 20 min at moderate intensity, and 6 h recovery at 975 m (normoxic) or simulated 5,000 m (hypoxic chamber) in a randomized counter-balanced cross-over design. Oxygen saturation was monitored via finger pulse oximetry. Blood plasma obtained pre- (Pre), post- (Post), 2 h post- (2Hr), 4 h post- (4Hr), and 6 h (6Hr) post-exercise was assayed for Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP), Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), Lipid Hydroperoxides (LOOH), and Protein Carbonyls (PC). Biopsies from the vastus lateralis obtained Pre and 6Hr were analyzed by real-time PCR quantify expression of Heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), Superoxide Dismutase 2 (SOD2), and Nuclear factor (euthyroid-derived2)-like factor (NFE2L2). PCs were not altered between trials, but a time effect (13 % Post-2Hr increase, p = 0.044) indicated exercise-induced blood oxidative stress. Plasma LOOH revealed only a time effect (p = 0.041), including a 120 % Post-4Hr increase. TEAC values were elevated in normoxic recovery versus hypoxic recovery. FRAP values were higher 6Hr (p = 0.045) in normoxic versus hypoxic recovery. Exercise elevated gene expression of NFE2L2 (20 % increase, p = 0.001) and SOD2 (42 % increase, p = 0.003), but hypoxic recovery abolished this response. Data indicate that recovery in a hypoxic environment, independent of exercise, may alter exercise adaptations to oxidative stress and metabolism.

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