Strenuous physical exercise in the form of swimming in female albino rats increased the oxidative reactions, probably leading to the generation of oxy-free radicals in the lung tissue. Free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation measured in the form of lipid peroxides increased in the pulmonary tissue in response to exhaustive exercise, indicating such a possibility. Dietary supplementation of vitamin E (Vit.E) and selenium (Se) for a period of 12 weeks reduced the oxidative reactions and the ensuing lipid peroxidation in the pulmonary tissue. Physical exercise in control animals induced the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), the superoxide anion radical (O2-.) quencher. However, the SOD levels in nutrient-fed animals at rest and after exercise remained well below the control levels, indicating the decreased generation of oxy-free radicals in them. Similarly, selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH Px), the enzyme involved in the reduction of organic and inorganic peroxides, and glutathione S- transferase (GST), the multifunctional protein involved in the detoxification of a number of xenobiotics, were increased in response to exercise in control animals, but were significantly decreased in nutrient-fed animals upon exercise. The induction of GST seems to be more towards the peroxidase activity of GST, i.e., non-selenium glutathione peroxidase (Non-Se-GSH Px), which is primarily involved in the reduction of endoperoxides. The studies thus indicate the induction of oxidative stress in the pulmonary tissue upon exhaustive physical exercise and the effectiveness of vit.E and Se independently and more so in combination in combating the exercise-induced oxidant stress.