0.00001, n = 14 trials). These results were robust and remained significant after sensitivity analysis. Study heterogeneity was generally high. As for physical exercise modalities, aerobic exercise, but not other modalities, increased adiponectin and reduced leptin levels. In conclusion, physical exercise and, specifically, aerobic exercise, leads to higher adiponectin and lower leptin levels in prediabetic and diabetic adults. However, cautious interpretation of current findings is warranted.