Angiogenesis is an important part of tumor growth in vivo. We used the transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that overproduced recombinant transforming growth-factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) to examine the possible role of this factor in tumor growth and angiogenesis in a nude mouse model. The in-vitro proliferation of TGF-beta 1-transfected CHO cells was unaffected by the treatment of either recombinant TGF-beta 1 or an anti-TGF-beta 1 antibody. The TGF-beta 1-transfected cells grew more rapidly than the parental CHO cells when injected subcutaneously into nude mice. The tumors derived from the TGF-beta 1-transfected cells showed prominent tumor-associated angiogenesis, whereas the parental cells produced tumors without such angiogenesis. In addition, an anti-TGF-beta 1 neutralizing antibody was able to inhibit both growth and angiogenesis in the tumors derived from TGF-beta 1-transfected cells. These findings suggest that the overproduction of TGF-beta 1 by tumor cells can contribute to neovascularization and may help promote tumor development in vivo.