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Examining the Short Dark Tetrad (SD4) Across Models, Correlates, and Gender.

Authors
  • Neumann, Craig S1
  • Jones, Daniel N2
  • Paulhus, Delroy L3
  • 1 University of North Texas, Denton, TX, USA.
  • 2 University of Nevada at Reno, Las Vegas, NV, USA.
  • 3 University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. , (Canada)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Assessment
Publication Date
Jun 01, 2022
Volume
29
Issue
4
Pages
651–667
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1177/1073191120986624
PMID: 33445956
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

To date, no studies have examined a range of structural models of the interpersonally aversive traits tapped by the Short Dark Tetrad (SD4; narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, sadism), in conjunction with their measurement invariance (males vs. females) and how the models each predict external correlates. Using a large sample of young adults (N = 3,975), four latent variable models were compared in terms of fit, measurement invariance, and prediction of intrapersonal and interpersonal functioning. The models tested were as follows: (Model A) confirmatory factor analytic, (Model B) bifactor, (Model C) exploratory structural equation model, and (Model D) a reduced-item confirmatory factor analytic that maximized item information. All models accounted for item covariance with good precision, although differed in incremental fit. Strong invariance held for all models, and each accounted similarly for the external correlates, highlighting differential predictive effects of the SD4 factors. The results provide support for four theoretically distinct but overlapping dark personality domains.

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