Both the gastro-camera and gastroscopy are methods of examination dating back to the last century. Since 1955 examination with the gastro-camera has gained major importance in Japan. Not until the efficient gastroscopic instruments based on fiber optics and with extremely flexible points as well as advance view optical systems were developed large-scale, introduction esophageal gastro-bulboscopy in hospitals and in offices of specialists became possible. In our view the replacement of the gastro-camera method of diagnosis as a basic examination by gastroscopy is not justified. The gastro-camera is highly efficient and easily applied if centers for early diagnosis of gastric tumor cooperate with the examining physicans; their own experience with the gastro-camera is a premise for this arrangement. The principal task of endoscopic diagnosis is the determination as to therapy, namely whether surgery or a conservative method should be applied: this is particularly true in the case of early carcinoma stages where a 90% 5-year survival chance prevails. For various reasons gastro-camera examination should be assigned a more prominent role. Gastroscopy and histological examination represent further steps in diagnosing malignant processes. It is not possible to preclude the possiblity of a malignant tumor by means of gastroscopic biopsy.