Background to the Problem: Improving nurses' self-efficacy and job satisfaction may improve the quality of nursing care to patients. Moreover, to work effectively and consistently with professional nursing standards, nurses have to believe they are able to make decisions about their practice. In order to identify what strategies and professional development programmes should be developed and implemented for registered nurses in the Australian context, a comprehensive profile of registered nurses and factors that affect nursing care in Australia needs to be available. However, at present, there is limited information available on a) the perceived caring efficacy and job satisfaction of registered nurses in Australia, and b) the relationships between the demographic variables general self-efficacy, work locus of control, coping styles, the professional nursing practice environment and caring efficacy and job satisfaction of registered nurses in Australia. This is the first study to 1) investigate relationships between caring efficacy and job satisfaction with factors such as general self-efficacy, locus of control and coping, 2) the nursing practice environment in the Australian context and 3) conceptualise a model of caring efficacy and job satisfaction in the Australian context. Research Design and Methods: This study used a two-phase cross-sectional survey design. A pilot study was conducted in order to determine the validity and reliability of the survey instruments and to assess the effectiveness of the participant recruitment process. The second study of the research involved investigating the relationships between the socio-demographic, dependent and independent variables. Socio-demographic variables included age, gender, level of education, years of experience, years in current job, employment status, geographical location, specialty area, health sector, state and marital status. Other independent variables in this study included general self-efficacy, work locus of control, coping styles and the professional nursing practice environment. The dependent variables were job satisfaction and caring efficacy. Results: A confirmatory factor analysis of the Brisbane Practice Environment Measure (B-PEM) was conducted. A five-factor structure of the B-PEM was confirmed. Relationships between socio-demographic variables, caring efficacy and job satisfaction, were identified at the bivariate and multivariable levels. Further, examination using structural equation modelling revealed general self-efficacy, work locus of control, coping style and the professional nursing practice environment contributed to caring efficacy and job satisfaction of registered nurses in Australia. Conclusion: This research contributes to the literature on how socio-demographic, personal and environmental variables (work locus of control, general self-efficacy and the nursing practice environment) influence caring efficacy and job satisfaction in registered nurses in Australia. Caring efficacy and job satisfaction may be improved if general self-efficacy is high in those that have an internal work locus of control. The study has also shown that practice environments that provide the necessary resources improve job satisfaction in nurses. The results have identified that the development and implementation of strategies for professional development and orientation programmes that enhance self-efficacy and work locus of control may contribute to better quality nursing practice and job satisfaction. This may further assist registered nurses towards focusing on improving their practice abilities. These strategies along with practice environments that provide the necessary resources for nurses to practice effectively may lead to better job satisfaction. This information is important for nursing leaders, healthcare organisations and policymakers, as the development and implementation of these strategies may lead to better recruitment and retention of nurses. The study results will contribute to the national and international literature on self-efficacy, job satisfaction and nursing practice.