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Ex situ and in situ Raman microscopic investigation of the differences between stoichiometric LiMO2 and high-energy xLi2MnO3·(1–x)LiMO2 (M = Ni, Co, Mn)

Authors
  • Lanz, Patrick
  • Villevieille, Claire
  • Novák, Petr
Type
Published Article
Journal
Electrochimica Acta
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2014
Accepted Date
Mar 07, 2014
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2014.03.004
Source
Elsevier
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

Layered mixed transition metal oxides of the type LiMO2 (M=Ni, Co, Mn), known as stoichiometric NCM for equal amounts of transition metals, have been proposed as positive electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. If overlithiated, these compounds can be written as xLi2MnO3·(1–x)LiMO2, are referred to as high-energy NCM and show higher specific charges and improved cycling stabilities. For the first time, the Raman spectroscopic changes occurring in stoichiometric and high-energy NCM upon electrochemical cycling under identical conditions are compared. The former was synthesised via the sol-gel method while the latter was obtained commercially. The compounds were characterised by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Ex situ Raman measurements of NCMs with increasing overlithiation revealed a shift of the A1g band towards the Ag band of Li2MnO3, whereas no such shift was observed after electrochemical cycling, thus lending support to the Li2MnO3 domain model and the irreversibility of Li2MnO3 activation, respectively. Finally, in situ Raman spectra of stoichiometric and high-energy NCM exhibited the emergence of a new reversible band at ∼545cm−1, which was stable over a larger potential range in the latter compound.

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