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The Evolving Role of Caveolin-1: A Critical Regulator of Extracellular Vesicles

Authors
  • Ni, Kareemah
  • Wang, Chenghao
  • Carnino, Jonathan M
  • Jin, Yang
Type
Published Article
Journal
Medical Sciences
Publisher
MDPI
Publication Date
Nov 04, 2020
Volume
8
Issue
4
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/medsci8040046
PMID: 33158117
PMCID: PMC7712126
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Review
License
Green

Abstract

Emerging evidence suggests that extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an essential role in mediating intercellular communication and inter-organ crosstalk both at normal physiological conditions and in the pathogenesis of human diseases. EV cargos are made up of a broad spectrum of molecules including lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids such as DNA, RNA, and microRNAs. The complex EV cargo composition is cell type-specific. A dynamic change in EV cargos occurs along with extracellular stimuli and a change in the pathophysiological status of the host. Currently, the underlying mechanisms by which EVs are formed and EV cargos are selected in the absence and presence of noxious stimuli and pathogens remain incompletely explored. The term EVs refers to a heterogeneous group of vesicles generated via different mechanisms. Some EVs are formed via direct membrane budding, while the others are produced through multivesicular bodies (MVBs) or during apoptosis. Despite the complexity of EV formation and EV cargo selection, recent studies suggest that caveolin-1, a well-known structural protein of caveolae, regulates the formation and cargo selection of some EVs, such as microvesicles (MVs). In this article, we will review the current understanding of this emerging and novel role of cav-1.

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