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The evolving challenge of therapy-related myeloid neoplasms

Authors
  • Churpek, Jane E.
  • Larson, Richard A.1, 2, 3, 4, 3, 5, 3
  • 1 Section of Hematology Oncology
  • 2 Department of Medicine
  • 3 The University of Chicago
  • 4 Center for Clinical Cancer Genetics
  • 5 Comprehensive Cancer Center
Type
Published Article
Journal
Best Practice & Research Clinical Haematology
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2013
Volume
26
Issue
4
Pages
309–317
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.beha.2013.09.001
Source
Elsevier
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS) and therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) are late complications of cytotoxic therapies used to treat malignant, and increasingly, non-malignant conditions. Although distinct clinical, morphologic, and genetic features can be recognized, these disorders should be seen as part of a single disease spectrum recognized by the WHO in a singular classification, therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MNs). Etiologic factors for t-MNs remain elusive, but ongoing research has characterized risk factors which vary between patient subgroups and exposures. Agents that damage DNA directly, interfere with DNA repair, and suppress the immune system's ability to detect malignant cells increase the risk of t-MNs. As in primary MDS and de novo AML, prognosis and treatment strategies rely on patient characteristics as well as cytogenetics. However, the overall outcome for patients with t-MNs remains poor. Here we review our current understanding of t-MNs as they are most often encountered by the practicing clinician.

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