Discovery of hepatitis C in 1989 allowed basic research to identify critical components of hepatitis C virus (HCV) structure and life cycle. Interferon (IFN)-α was introduced as first treatment for chronic hepatitis C and later was enhanced by pegylation, addition of ribavirin, and resulted in improved sustained virologic response. Better understanding of HCV structure, enzymes, and lifecycle led to the discovery of direct-acting antivirals and IFN-free era. Successful HCV therapy created a rare possibility of global disease eradication, which is now a major goal internationally. However, hepatitis C remains a major public health challenge, and more resources are needed to reach global elimination.