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The evolution and refinement of traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

Authors
Type
Published Article
Journal
Cardiology in review
Publication Date
Volume
20
Issue
3
Pages
118–129
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1097/CRD.0b013e318239b924
PMID: 22183062
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease such as systemic hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, all described more than half a century ago, are relatively few in number. Efforts to expand the epidemiologic canon have met with limited success because of the high hurdle of causality. Fortunately, another solution to current deficiencies in risk assessment-in particular, the underestimation of risk both before and after initiation of pharmacotherapy-may exist. Parallel to the investigation of novel biomarkers, such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, ongoing research has yielded improved metrics of known causative conditions. This evolution of traditional risk factors, heralded by measures such as ambulatory blood pressure, central hemodynamics, low density lipoprotein particle concentration, genetic testing, and "vascular age," may better address the detection gap in cardiovascular disease.

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