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Evolution of intermetallic GaPd<sub>2</sub>/SiO<sub>2</sub> catalyst and optimization for methanol synthesis at ambient pressure

Authors
  • Fiordaliso, Elisabetta M.
  • Sharafutdinov, Irek
  • Carvalho, Hudson W. P.
  • Kehres, Jan
  • Grunwaldt, Jan-D.
  • Chorkendorff, Ib
  • Damsgaard, Christian D.
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2019
Source
Online Research Database In Technology
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown
External links

Abstract

<p>The CO<sub>2</sub> hydrogenation to methanol is efficiently catalyzed at ambient pressure by nanodispersed intermetallic GaPd<sub>2</sub>/SiO<sub>2</sub> catalysts prepared by incipient wetness impregnation. Here we optimize the catalyst in terms of metal content and reduction temperature in relation to its catalytic activity. We find that the intrinsic activity is higher for the GaPd<sub>2</sub>/SiO<sub>2</sub> catalyst with a metal loading of 13 wt.% compared to catalysts with 23 wt.% and 7 wt.%, indicating that there is an optimum particle size for the reaction of around 8 nm. The highest catalytic activity is measured on catalysts reduced at 550 °C. To unravel the formation of the active phase, we studied calcined GaPd<sub>2</sub>/SiO<sub>2</sub> catalysts with 23 wt.% and 13 wt.% using a combination of in situ techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption near edge fine structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). We find that the catalyst with higher metal content reduces to metallic Pd in a mixture of H<sub>2</sub>/Ar at room temperature, while the catalyst with lower metal content retains a mixture of PdO and Pd up to 140 °C. Both catalysts form the GaPd<sub>2</sub> phase above 300 °C, albeit the fraction of crystalline intermediate Pd nanoparticles of the catalyst with higher metal loading reduces at higher temperature. In the final state, the catalyst with higher metal loading contains a fraction of unalloyed metallic Pd, while the catalyst with lower metal loading is phase pure. We discuss the alloying mechanism leading to the catalyst active phase formation selecting three temperatures: 25 °C, 320 °C and 550 °C.</p>

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