Purpose of ReviewPatients diagnosed with head and neck (H&N) cancer often present in a malnourished state for varied reasons; nutritional optimization is therefore critical to the success of treatment for these complex patients. This article aims to review the current nutrition literature pertaining to H&N cancer patients and to present evidence-based strategies for nutritional support specific to this population.Recent FindingsAggressive nutritional intervention is frequently required in the H&N cancer patient population. Rehabilitating nutrition during operative and nonoperative treatment improves compliance with treatment, quality of life, and clinical outcomes. When and whether to establishing alternative enteral access are points of controversy, although recent evidence suggests prophylactic enteral feeding tube placement should not be universally applied. Perioperative nutritional optimization including preoperative carbohydrate loading and provision of arginine-supplemented immunonutrition has been shown to benefit at-risk H&N cancer patients.SummaryWith multidisciplinary collaboration, H&N cancer patients can receive individualized nutritional support to withstand difficult cancer treatment regimens and return to acceptable states of nutritional health.