Currently, it is impossible to think of modern healthcare that ignores evidence-based medicine (EBM), a concept which relies on 3 pillars: individual clinical expertise, the values and desires of the patient, and the best available research. However, EBM is not perfect. Clinical research is also far from being perfect. This article provides an overview of the basic principles, opportunities, and controversies offered by EBM. It also summarizes current discussions on clinical research. Potential solutions to the problems of EBM and clinical research are discussed as well. If there were specific issues related to pediatric nutrition, an attempt was made to discuss the basic principles and limitations in this context. However, the conclusions are applicable to EBM and clinical research in general. In the future, considering that new ways of obtaining health data will continue to emerge, the world of EBM and clinical research is likely to change. The ultimate goal, however, will remain the same: improving health outcomes for patients.