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Evidence that seasonal malaria chemoprevention with SPAQ influences blood and pre-erythrocytic stage antibody responses of Plasmodium falciparum infections in Niger

  • Moustapha, L. M.
  • Adamou, R.
  • Ibrahim, M. L.
  • Padounou, M. A. L.
  • Diallo, A.
  • Courtin, David
  • Testa, J.
  • Ndiaye, J. L. A.
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2021
Horizon Pleins textes
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Background In endemic areas, children develop slowly and naturally anti-Plasmodium antibodies and become semi-immune. Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine + amodiaquine (SPAQ) is a new strategy to reduce malaria morbidity in West African young children. However, SMC may impact on the natural acquisition of anti-Plasmodium immunity. This paper evaluates the effect of SMC with SPAQ on antibody concentration in young children from Niger. Methods This research was conducted in areas benefitting from SMC since 2014 (Zinder district), without SMC (Dosso district), and with 1 year of SMC since 2016 (Gaya district). To assess the relationship between SMC and Plasmodium falciparum IgG antibody responses, the total antibody concentrations against two P. falciparum asexual stage vaccine candidate antigens, circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and glutamate-rich protein R2 (GLURP-R2), in children aged 3 to 59 months across the three areas were compared. Antibody concentrations are quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on the elution extracted from positive and negative malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test cassettes. Results The analysis concerns two hundred and twenty-nine children aged from 3 to 59 months: 71 in Zinder, 77 in Dosso, and 81 in Gaya. In Zinder (CSP = 17.5 mu g/ml and GLURP-R2 = 14.3 mu g/ml) median antibody concentration observed are higher than in Gaya (CSP = 7.7 mu g/ml and GLURP-R2 = 6.5 mu g/ml) and Dosso (CSP = 4.5 mu g/ml and GLURP-R2 = 3.6 mu g/ml) (p < 0.0001). Conclusion The research reveals some evidences which show that seasonal malaria chemoprevention with SPAQ has an effect on blood stage antibody responses and pre-erythrocytic stage of P. falciparum infections in Niger. Increased antibody titres with increased SMC/SPAQ implementation. This contradicts hypothesis that SMC/SPAQ could reduce immunity to erythrocyte and liver-stage antigens. Further studies are necessary to provide better understanding of the SMC effect on malaria immunity.

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