Acute phase serum amyloid A (A-apoSAA), but not constitutive apoSAA (C-apoSAA), was identified by Western blotting experiments in brain protein extracts from eight of nine patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), one with a brain tumor and one with multiple sclerosis. A-apoSAA was not detected in six subjects with Pick's or Lewy Body disease or three other non-AD brain specimens. Apolipoprotein A-I and albumin were not found in any of the brain protein extracts. A-apoSAA mRNA was detected in AD brain by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). These data suggest that apoSAA is locally produced in AD brain and that investigation of the neuroinflammatory effects of this injury specific apolipoprotein is warranted.