ICAM-1 is involved in both adhesion and extravasation of leukocytes to endothelium during inflammation. It has been shown that the ICAM-1 cytoplasmic domain is important for transendothelial migration of leukocytes but the precise molecular mechanisms involving the intracytoplasmic portion of ICAM-1 is not known. To characterize precisely the molecular scaffolding associated with ICAM-1, we have used the yeast two-hybrid system, and we have identified six different proteins interacting with the ICAM-1 cytoplasmic domain. In this study, we report that the two forms of nonmuscle alpha-actinin (i.e., alpha-actinin 1 and alpha-actinin 4) associate with ICAM-1, and that these interactions are essential for leukocyte extravasation. These interactions were further confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence in endothelial cells and in ICAM-1-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. The function of these interactions was analyzed by point mutation of charged amino acids located on ICAM-1 cytoplasmic domain. We have identified three charged amino acids (arginine 480, lysine 481, and arginine 486) which are essential in the binding of alpha-actinins to the ICAM-1 cytoplasmic tail. Mutation of these amino acids completely inhibited ICAM-1-mediated diapedesis. Experiments with siRNA inhibiting specifically alpha-actinin 1 or alpha-actinin 4 on endothelial cells indicated that alpha-actinin 4 had a major role in this phenomenon. Thus, our data demonstrate that ICAM-1 directly interacts with cytoplasmic alpha-actinin 1 and 4 and that this interaction is required for leukocyte extravasation.