Repeated measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were obtained in 7 patients who underwent a stereotactic thalamic electrode implantation in the nucleus ventralis intermedius (nVIM) of the thalamus for severe hemi-parkinsonian tremor. Using positron emission tomography and oxygen-15 labelled water, rCBF was studied in each patient in two conditions: in absence of tremor, e.g. under nVIM electrical stimulation, and in presence of tremor. X-ray tomograms permitted individual definition of anatomical regions of interest. In presence of tremor, normalized rCBF increases were observed in the following regions: postcentral (13.6 +/- 8.4%, P = 0.0003), precentral (7.7 +/- 8.8%, P = 0.016), paracentral (7.7 +/- 8.4%), supplementary motor (8.2 +/- 10.4%, P = 0.025), caudate nucleus (5.7 +/- 7.6%, P = 0.03), vermis (9.7 +/- 7.3%, P = 0.007), cerebellar grey nuclei (9 +/- 6%, P = 0.016) on the electrode side and on the contralateral vermis (17.8 +/- 7.5%, P = 0.0003) and cerebellar grey nuclei (22 +/- 6.3%, P = 0.0004). These results clearly indicate an activation of the sensory-motor cortex, as well as an involvement of the supplementary motor area and the cortico-cerebellar pathways in Parkinsonian resting tremor (PRT). They demonstrate that PRT shares common network of brain structures with repetitive voluntary movement.