Non-invasive diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection is important not only for screening of infection but also for epidemiological studies. Stool antigen tests are non-invasive and are convenient to identify H. pylori infection, particularly in children. We evaluated the stool antigen test, which uses a mAb for native catalase of H. pylori developed in Japan. A total of 151 stool samples were collected from participants (52 children and 99 adults) of the Sasayama Cohort Study and stored between -30 and -80 °C. The stool antigen test used was Testmate pylori antigen (TPAg), and was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. Furthermore, we conducted a quantitative real-time PCR test and compared the PCR results with those of the TPAg test. When compared with the results in real-time PCR, the sensitivity of TPAg was 89.5 % overall, 82.7 % for children and 92.4 % for adults, and the specificity was 100 %. The accuracy was 93.4 % overall, 90.4 % for children and 94.9 % for adults, and there was no significant difference in the accuracy of TPAg between children and adults. Five of 28 children (18 %) and five of 38 adults (13 %) were PCR positive with negative TPAg results. Four of five children with positive PCR and negative TPAg results were given a (13)C-urea breath test and all four children tested negative. No significant correlation was observed between the TPAg results and DNA numbers of H. pylori in faeces among children or adults. A stool antigen test (TPAg) using a mAb for native catalase is useful for diagnosis of H. pylori in children and adults. Additionally, this test has particularly high specificity.