Much is known about the chronic effects of cigarette smoke (CS) on lung function and inflammation and development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms related to the short-term exposure to CS are not fully understood. Here, we assessed the effect of CS generated by nine consecutive cigarettes per day for four days in a nose-only exposure system on airway resistance measured using forced oscillation technique, lung inflammation and oxidative stress in BALB/c mice. Control mice were exposed to air. Mice exposed to CS showed a significant increase of neutrophils and lymphocytes numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). The total protein and endothelin levels in BAL fluid were significantly augmented suggesting an increase of alveolar-capillary barrier permeability. Similarly, airway resistance was significantly increased in the CS group compared with controls. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation levels in lung tissue were significantly increased. The antioxidant activities of reduced glutathione, glutathione S transferase and superoxide dismutase were all significantly increased following CS exposure, indicating that CS could trigger adaptive responses that counterbalance the potentially damaging activity of oxygen radicals induced by CS exposure. In conclusion, our data indicate that short-term nose-only exposure to CS causes lung inflammation and increase of airway resistance mediated at least partly through the oxidative stress.