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Evaluation of Prescribing Patterns of Antibiotics Using Selected Indicators for Antimicrobial Use in Hospitals and the Access, Watch, Reserve (AWaRe) Classification by the World Health Organization

Authors
  • MUGADA, Vinodkumar1
  • MAHATO, Varsha1
  • ANDHAVARAM, Damayanthi1
  • VAJHALA, Sairam Mouli1
  • 1 Vignan Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Andhra Pradesh, India
Type
Published Article
Journal
Turkish Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Publisher
Galenos Publishing
Publication Date
Jun 18, 2021
Volume
18
Issue
3
Pages
282–288
Identifiers
DOI: 10.4274/tjps.galenos.2020.11456
PMID: 34157817
PMCID: PMC8231325
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Original Article
License
Unknown

Abstract

Objectives: Antibiotic resistance poses a significant threat to the world, and irrational use of antibiotics is a major contributing factor. Evaluation of antimicrobial use is underway with the help of indicators and the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of antibiotics into Access, Watch, and Reserve (AWaRe) categories. We aimed to evaluate the prescribing pattern of antibiotics using the AWaRe classification by the WHO and selected indicators for antimicrobial use in hospitals. Materials and Methods: A total of 1.000 prescriptions were analyzed during the study for antibiotic prescribing patterns. Antibiotic consumption was calculated using defined daily dose (DDD) methodology. The prescribing pattern was evaluated using the WHO classification of antibiotics into the categories AWaRe and using selected indicators (hospital and prescribing) for antimicrobial use in hospitals. Results: A total of 1.128 antibiotics were prescribed during the study. The 19-44 age group was prescribed a high number of antibiotics (n=510). Females were prescribed a high number of antibiotics compared with males (n=602). Azithromycin was the most commonly consumed antibiotic (14.97 DDD/1000/day). Four antibiotics from the Access category and five from the Watch category were prescribed in the study. The Watch category of antibiotics were consumed in a high number. There were no standard treatment guidelines in the hospital. In all, 98.0% of antibiotics were consistent with the hospital formulary and prescribed under generic names. The average number of antibiotics prescribed per patient was 1.12. The average duration of antimicrobial treatment was 5.24 days. The percentage of patients prescribed antimicrobials for pneumonia in accordance with treatment guidelines was 13.28%. Conclusion: Irrational use of antibiotics exists in hospitals. There is a need to maintain standard treatment guidelines in the hospital because it prevents irrational use of antibiotics.

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