Knowing the genotypes of Musa textilis and its fiber production properties is key for developing cultivars with homogeneous properties and focusing on specific products or market segments that generate added value to the fiber. For this reason, the objective was to determine the optimal use of five genotypes of M. textilis (MT01, MT03, MT07, MT11, and CF01) with high productivity grown in the tropical region of Costa Rica. Therefore, anatomical, physical-mechanical, chemical, and energetic analyses were carried out on these fibers to define whether any genotype has the ideal conditions for a specific use. The results showed differences between the genotypes, obtaining significant differences in physical-mechanical properties (tension, water retention, and color), chemical properties (holocellulose, lignin, extractives, and elemental values of nitrogen, carbon, and sulfur), and energetic properties (volatiles, ash, and caloric value thermogravimetric analyses), which resulted in the establishment of two groups of genotypes with a dissimilarity degree of 35%. The first group, composed of MT03 and MT01, presented characteristics suitable for paper production, biodegradable materials, and composite materials. On the other hand, the second group, made up of MT07, MT11, and CF01, showed properties suitable for textiles, heavy-duty fibers, and bioenergy.