The new VITEK 2 system (bioMérieux) was evaluated at two independent sites with the identification card for gram-negative bacilli (ID-GNB card). Of the 845 strains tested, which represented 70 different taxa belonging to either the family Enterobacteriaceae or the nonenteric bacilli, 716 (84.7%) were correctly identified at the species level. Thirty-two (3.8%) additional strains were identified to the species level after the performance of simple, rapid manual tests (oxidase, hemolysis, indole reaction, motility, and pigmentation). For 80 (9.5%) strains, these additional tests did not lead to an identification at the species level but the correct species identification was given among the organisms listed. Only 7 (0.8%) strains were misidentified, and 10 (1.2%) were not identified. Mistakes were randomly distributed over different taxa. Due to the new, more sensitive fluorescence-based technology of the VITEK 2 system, final results were available after 3 h. Since our evaluation was mainly a stress test, it is predicted that the VITEK 2 system in conjunction with the ID-GNB card would perform well under conditions of a routine clinical laboratory in identifying members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and selected species of nonenteric bacteria. This system is a promising, highly automated new tool for the rapid identification of gram-negative bacilli from human clinical specimens.