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Evaluation of mechanisms of action of re-purposed drugs for treatment of COVID-19.

Authors
  • Rajaiah, Rajesh1
  • Abhilasha, Kandahalli V2
  • Shekar, Mysore A3
  • Vogel, Stefanie N4
  • Vishwanath, Bannikuppe S5
  • 1 Department of Studies in Molecular Biology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysuru, Karnataka, India. Electronic address: [email protected] , (India)
  • 2 Department of Studies in Biochemistry, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysuru, Karnataka, India. , (India)
  • 3 Chowdaiah Medical Center & Apoorva Diabetes Foundation, Mysuru, Karnataka, India. , (India)
  • 4 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM), Baltimore, MD, USA.
  • 5 Department of Studies in Biochemistry, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysuru, Karnataka, India. Electronic address: [email protected] , (India)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Cellular Immunology
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Dec 01, 2020
Volume
358
Pages
104240–104240
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.cellimm.2020.104240
PMID: 33137649
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global health emergency caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The rapid worldwide spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection has necessitated a global effort to identify effective therapeutic strategies in the absence of vaccine. Among the re-purposed drugs being tested currently, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), without or with zinc ion (Zn++) and the antibiotic azithromycin (AZM), has been administered to prevent or treat patients with COVID-19. The outcome of multiple clinical studies on HCQ has been mixed. Zn++ interferes with viral replication by inhibiting replicative enzymes and its entry into cells may be facilitated by HCQ. Another immunomodulatory drug, methotrexate (MTX), is well known for its ability to mitigate overactive immune system by upregulating the anti-inflammatory protein, A20. However, its beneficial effect in treating COVID-19 has not drawn much attention. This review provides an overview of the virology of SARS-CoV-2 and an analysis of the mechanisms by which these anti-inflammatory agents may act in the treatment of COVID-19 patients. We propose a rationale for the combinatorial use of these re-purposed drugs that may help to combat this ongoing pandemic health emergency. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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