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Evaluation of immunomodulatory activities of methanolic extract of khat (Catha edulis, Forsk) and cathinone in Swiss albino mice

Authors
  • Ketema, Tsige1, 2
  • Yohannes, Moti3
  • Alemayehu, Esayas4
  • Ambelu, Argaw1
  • 1 Jimma University, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Department of Environmental Health Sciences and Technology, Jimma, Ethiopia , Jimma (Ethiopia)
  • 2 Jimma University, College of Natural Sciences, Department of Biology, Jimma, Ethiopia , Jimma (Ethiopia)
  • 3 Jimma University, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Department of Microbiology and Veterinary Public Health, Jimma, Ethiopia , Jimma (Ethiopia)
  • 4 School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Jimma University Institute of Technology, Jimma, Ethiopia , Jimma (Ethiopia)
Type
Published Article
Journal
BMC Immunology
Publisher
Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)
Publication Date
Feb 22, 2015
Volume
16
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1186/s12865-015-0072-5
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

BackgroundThe objective of this study was to explore the immunomodulatory effect of khat and its active component, cathinone, using mice.Materials and methodsFemale Swiss albino mice aged 7–8 weeks weighing 25-30 g were used in the study. Mice were randomized into eight groups of 6 each and oral treatment of khat crude extract and cathinone were given daily for four weeks. Physical, hematological, biochemical, and immunological parameters were measured. Immunological studies included humeral immunity (IgG and IgM), cellular immune response (delay type hypersensitivity), phagocytic activities of reticuloendothelial system, and determination of T-lymphocyte population: CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ count and CD4+/CD8+ status.ResultsFindings of this study showed that, khat and its major metabolite, cathinone, can positively affect immune system in dose dependent manner. When doses of crude khat extract and cathinone increase, the induction of humeral (IgG and IgM) and cellular immune responses were up-regulated significantly (P < 0.05), while at higher dose of khat (200 mg/kg) cellular immune response was suppressed. In support of this, as doses of the two test substances increased, the count of T helper cells (CD4+) was significantly increased (P < 0.05), while higher dose significantly reduced whole white blood cell (WBC), CD8+, and CD3+ counts.ConclusionAt relatively lower dose (50-100 mg/kg), crude khat extract has immune stimulating property, although higher dose (200 mg/kg) leads to suppression of cellular immune response. Cathinone also share all immune modulating property of its parent compound, khat, but with intense strength. Thus, it calls for further detailed investigation of khat for practical application of the same in human medication.

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