The immunogenicity of P97 adhesin repeat region R1 (P97R1) of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, an important pathogenesis-associated region of P97, was evaluated in mice as a mucosal vaccine. Mice were immunized orally with attenuated Salmonella typhimurium aroA strain CS332 harbouring a eukaryotic or prokaryotic expression vector encoding P97R1. Local and systemic immune responses were analysed by ELISA on mouse sera, lung washes and splenocyte supernatants following splenocyte stimulation with specific antigens in vitro. Although no P97R1-specific antibody responses were detected in serum and lung washes, significant gamma interferon was produced by P97R1-stimulated splenocytes from mice immunized orally with S. typhimurium aroA harbouring either expression system, indicating induction of a cell-mediated immune response. These results suggested that live bacterial vectors carrying DNA vaccines or expressing heterologous antigens preferentially induce a Th1 response. Surprisingly, however, mice immunized with the vaccine carrier S. typhimurium aroA CS332 induced serum IgG, but not mucosal IgA, against P97R1 or S. typhimurium aroA CS332 whole-cell lysate, emphasizing the importance of assessing the suitability of attenuated S. typhimurium antigen-carrier delivery vectors in the mouse model prior to their evaluation as potential vaccines in the target species, which in this instance was pigs.