Hydroxyapatite (HA) middle ear prostheses have gained popularity as an alternative to human autografts and homografts. This study reports on 3 HA prostheses types: total ossicular chain prostheses, used for grafting the stapes footplate to the tympanic membrane; partial ossicular chain prostheses, used for grafting the stapes superstructure to the tympanic membrane; and Kartush incus struts (Smith & Nephew Richards Inc), used for grafting the stapes superstructure to the undersurface of the malleus. This single-surgeon study of 33 consecutive cases revealed a statistically significant difference in mean postoperative air-bone gap and airbone gap closure between incus struts (14/26 dB) or partial (22/11 dB) or total (25/10 dB) ossicular chain prostheses (t test: P<0.05). Prognostic risk factors graded by the Middle Ear Risk Index indicate a tendency for worse postoperative hearing with increasing Middle Ear Risk Index. This study supports the use of HA ossicular prostheses and, in particular, the use of the malleus for ossicular chain construction.