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Evaluation of hydrogenated resin acids as molecular markers for tire-wear debris in urban environments.

Authors
Type
Published Article
Journal
Environmental Science & Technology
1520-5851
Publisher
American Chemical Society
Publication Date
Volume
45
Issue
23
Pages
9990–9997
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1021/es202156f
PMID: 22008013
Source
Medline

Abstract

To propose new molecular markers for tire-wear emissions, four dihydroresin acids, that is, 8-isopimaren-18-oic acid (I), 8-pimaren-18-oic acid (II), 13β(H)-abieten-18-oic acid (III), and 13α(H)-abiet-8-en-18-oic acid (IV), were identified and investigated for source specificities, distributions, and environmental stabilities. The absence of I-IV in natural sources and the linear correlations between dihydroresin acids with different skeletons in tires and in environmental samples demonstrated that I-IV are specific markers for synthetic rubbers. The ratio of III + IV to the sum of III + IV plus abietic acid showed the resin acids distribution between different environmental compartments receiving contributions from traffic and natural sources. The physicochemical properties and results of photolysis experiments suggested that I-IV can set lower limits for tire-wear contributions to environmental loads of particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with molecular weight ≥202. By comparing III + IV concentrations or (III+IV)/pyrene or (III+IV)/benzo[a]pyrene ratios in tires and those in environmental matrices, the contributions of tire-wear emissions to PM, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene were estimated to be 0.68 ± 0.54%, 6.9 ± 4.8%, and 0.37 ± 0.18% in roadside PM and 0.83 ± 0.21%, 0.88 ± 0.52%, and 0.08 ± 0.06% in rooftop PM.

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