Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is a key element of the water cycle in tropical areas for the planning and management of water resources, hydrological modeling, and irrigation management. The objective of this research is to assess twenty methods in computing ET0 in the Senegal River Basin and to calibrate and validate the best methods that integrate fewer climate variables. The performance of alternative methods compared to the Penman Monteith (FAO56-PM) model is evaluated using the coefficient of determination (R-2), normalized root mean square error (NRMSE), percentage of bias (PBIAS), and the Kling-Gupta Efficiency (KGE). The most robust methods integrating fewer climate variables were calibrated and validated and the results show that Trabert, Valiantzas 2, Valiantzas 3, and Hargreaves and Samani models are, respectively, the most robust for ET0 estimation. The calibration improves the estimates of reference evapotranspiration compared to original models. It improved the performance of these models with an increase in KGE values of 45%, 32%, 29%, and 19% for Trabert, Valiantzas 2, Valiantzas 3, and Hargreaves and Samani models, respectively. From a spatial point of view, the calibrated models of Trabert and Valiantzas 2 are robust in all the climatic zones of the Senegal River Basin, whereas, those of Valiantzas 3 and Hargreaves and Samani are more efficient in the Guinean zone. This study provides information on the choice of a model for estimating evapotranspiration in the Senegal River Basin.