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Evaluation of antenatal risk factors for postpartum depression: a secondary cohort analysis of the cluster-randomised GeliS trial

Authors
  • Johar, Hamimatunnisa1, 2
  • Hoffmann, Julia3
  • Günther, Julia3
  • Atasoy, Seryan1, 2
  • Stecher, Lynne3
  • Spies, Monika3
  • Hauner, Hans3
  • Ladwig, Karl-Heinz1, 4
  • 1 German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, Neuherberg, 85764, Germany , Neuherberg (Germany)
  • 2 Justus-Liebig University of Giessen and Marburg, Giessen, Friedrichstr. 33, Gießen, 35392, Germany , Gießen (Germany)
  • 3 Technical University of Munich, Georg-Brauchle-Ring 62, Munich, 80992, Germany , Munich (Germany)
  • 4 Technische Universität München, Langerstr. 3, Munich, 81675, Germany , Munich (Germany)
Type
Published Article
Journal
BMC Medicine
Publisher
BioMed Central
Publication Date
Jul 24, 2020
Volume
18
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1186/s12916-020-01679-7
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

BackgroundMaternal weight variables are important predictors of postpartum depression (PPD). While preliminary evidence points to an association between pre-pregnancy obesity and PPD, the role of excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) on PPD is less studied. In this secondary cohort analysis of the German ‘healthy living in pregnancy’ (GeliS) trial, we aimed to investigate associations between weight-related variables and PPD and to assess the influence of GWG on the risk for PPD.MethodsWe included women with normal weight, overweight, and obesity (BMI 18.5–40.0 kg/m2). Symptoms of PPD were assessed 6–8 weeks postpartum using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Pre-pregnancy BMI was self-reported. During the course of pregnancy, weight was measured at gynaecological practices within regular check-ups. GWG was defined as the difference between the last measured weight before delivery and the first measured weight at the time of recruitment (≤ 12th week of gestation). Excessive GWG was classified according to the Institute of Medicine. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the odds of PPD in relation to pre-pregnancy BMI, GWG, and excessive GWG adjusting for important confounders.ResultsOf the total 1583 participants, 45.6% (n = 722) showed excessive GWG and 7.9% (n = 138) experienced PPD. Pre-pregnancy BMI (per 5-unit increase; OR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.08–1.41, p = 0.002) and pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity were significantly positively associated with the odds of developing PPD, particularly among women with an antenatal history of anxiety or depressive symptoms (overweight: OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.15–3.22, p = 0.01; obesity: OR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.13–3.96, p = 0.02). Sociodemographic or lifestyle factors did not additively influence the odds of having PPD. In fully adjusted models, there was no significant evidence that GWG or the occurrence of excessive GWG increased the odds of experiencing PPD (excessive vs. non-excessive: OR = 3.48, 95% CI 0.35–34.94; GWG per 1 kg increase: OR = 1.16, 95% CI 0.94–1.44).ConclusionPre-pregnancy overweight or obesity is associated with PPD independent of concurrent risk factors. History of anxiety or depressive symptoms suggests a stress-induced link between pre-pregnancy weight and PPD.Trial registrationNCT01958307, ClinicalTrials.gov, retrospectively registered on 9 October 2013.

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