An activated carbon fiber supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (ACF-nZVI) composite for Cr(VI) removal from groundwater was synthesized according to the liquid phase reduction method. The techniques of N2 adsorption/desorption, FESEM, EDX, XRD and XPS were used to characterize the ACF-nZVI composite and the interaction between the ACF-nZVI composite and Cr(VI) ions. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of several factors, including the amount of nZVI on activated carbon fiber (ACF), pH value, initial Cr(VI) concentration, and co-existing ions on Cr(VI) removal. The results indicate that presence of ACF can inhibit the aggregation of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles and increase its reactivity, and the Cr(VI) removal efficiency increases with increasing amounts of nZVI on ACF and a decrease in the initial Cr(VI) concentration. In acidic conditions, almost 100% of Cr(VI) in solution can be removed after 60 min of reaction, and the removal efficiency decreases with increasing initial pH values. The Cr(VI) removal is also dependent on the co-existing ions. Reusability experiments on ACF-nZVI demonstrate that the ACF-nZVI composite can keep a high reactivity after five successive reduction cycles. The removal mechanisms are proposed as a two-step interaction including the physical adsorption of Cr(VI) on the surface or inner layers of the ACF-nZVI composite and the subsequent reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by nZVI.