To study the accuracy of residents' operative experience reports, operations were monitored for 6 months. Independent scores for participation (on a scale from 0 to 10) and rating for credit "as surgeon" were obtained from attending surgeons and residents. There was extremely close agreement on acceptance of credit (n = 1,049 of 1,139; p less than 0.00001); where disparity existed, it was predominant in the first two postgraduate years (62% of 90 cases). There was also significant correlation between scores (p less than 0.001). When analyzed in low- (0-3.0), intermediate- (3.5-6.0), and high-score (6.5-10) groups, there was significantly better correlation in the low- and high-score groups (p less than 0.000000001). Sixty-five percent of procedures in the intermediate group were performed by first or second postgraduate year residents; these residents performed 493 (43%) of all procedures. The overall reporting accuracy appeared excellent. Counseling and monitoring may be required at the junior levels.