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Ethnomedicinal Uses, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology of Species from the Genus Ajuga L.: A Systematic Review.

Authors
  • Luan, Fei1
  • Han, Keqing1
  • Li, Maoxing2
  • Zhang, Ting1
  • Liu, Daoheng1
  • Yu, Linhong1
  • Lv, Haizhen1
  • 1 *Department of Pharmacy, Shaanxi Provincial Hospital of Tuberculosis Prevention and Treatment, Xi'an 710100, P. R. China. , (China)
  • 2 †Department of Pharmacy, The 940th Hospital of Joint Logistic Support Force of PLA, Key Laboratory of the Prevention and Treatment for Injury in Plateau of PLA, Lanzhou 730050, P. R. China. , (China)
Type
Published Article
Journal
The American journal of Chinese medicine
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2019
Volume
47
Issue
5
Pages
959–1003
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X19500502
PMID: 31416340
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive summary of the botanical characteristics, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemical, pharmacological, and toxicological studies of the genus Ajuga L. The extensive literature survey revealed Ajuga L. species to be a group of important medicinal plants used for the ethnomedical treatment of rheumatism, fever, gout, sclerosis, analgesia, inflammation, hypertension, hyperglycemia, joint pain, palsy, amenorrhea, etc., although only a few reports address the clinical use and toxicity of these plants. Currently, more than 280 chemical constituents have been isolated and characterized from these plants. Among these constituents, neo-clerodane diterpenes and diterpenoids, phytoecdysteroids, flavonoids, and iridoids are the major bioactive compounds, possessing wide-reaching biological activities both in vivo and in vitro, including anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antitumor, anti-oxidant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antifeedant, antidiarrhoeal, hypolipidemic, diuretic, hypoglycaemic, immunomodulatory, vasorelaxant, larvicidal, antimutagenic, and neuroprotective activity. This review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge of the ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicities of the genus Ajuga L. to reveal its therapeutic potentials, offering opportunities for future researches. Therefore, more focus should be paid to gathering information about their toxicology data, quality-control measures, and the clinical application of the bioactive ingredients from Ajuga L. species.

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