Mouse CD90+ SSCs were enriched using the MACS technique and incubated with different doses of estradiol, ranging from 0.01 ng/mL to 500 μg/mL, for 7 days. The viability of SSCs was determined using an MTT assay. The combined effects of estradiol plus Sertoli cell differentiation medium on the orientation of SSCs toward Sertoli-like cells were also assessed. Using immunofluorescence imaging, we monitored protein levels of Oct3/4 after being exposed to estradiol. In addition, protein levels of testosterone, TF, and ABP were measured using ELISA. The expression of Sertoli cell-specific genes such as SOX9, GATA4, FSHR, TF, and ESR-1 and -2 was monitored using real-time PCR assay, and the effects of 14-day injection of estradiol on sperm parameters and Oct3/4 positive progenitor cells in a model of mouse were determined. Data showed that estradiol increased the viability of mouse SSCs in a dose-dependent manner compared to the control (p < 0.05). Along with these changes, cells displayed morphological changes and reduced Oct3/4 transcription factor levels compared to the control SSCs. 7-day incubation of SSCs with estradiol led to the up-regulation of SOX9, GATA4, FSHR, TF, and ESR-1 and -2, and levels of testosterone, TF, and ABP were increased compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The in-vivo examination noted that estradiol reduced sperm parameters coincided with morphological abnormalities (p < 0.05). Histological examination revealed pathological changes in seminiferous tubules and reduction of testicular Oct3/4+ progenitor cells. In conclusion, estradiol treatment probably can induce Sertoli cell differentiation of SSCs while exogenous administration leads to testicular progenitor cell depletion and infertility in long term. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.