Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men worldwide. In the past 10 years in Iran, prostate cancer has increased and become more common among hormone-related cancers. As the percentage of seniors in the population increases, the economic burden of this cancer will likely increase significantly. This study aims to estimate direct and indirect costs of treatment at different stages of prostate cancer in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 263 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer who were referred to prostate treatment centers in 2016. Data on direct medical costs were collected by face-to-face interviews with patients and from health care files and medical and financial documents available in the educational or referral centers. Direct nonmedical costs and indirect costs were based on self-reports by patients through face-to-face interview. The results indicate that mean (SD) direct medical costs for low-risk metastatic prostate cancer, local nonmetastatic prostate cancer, local regionalized nonmetastatic prostate cancer nonresistant metastatic prostate cancer, and resistant metastatic prostate cancer were $102.79 ($33.03), US$2673.43 ($87.42), $2210.51 ($306.92), $4133.15 ($650.87), and $7747.89 ($455.80), respectively. The results indicate that mean (SD) direct nonmedical costs for low-risk, local, local regionalized, nonresistant, and resistant cancers were $97.06 ($45.00), $339.71 ($58.02), $485.29 ($36.77), $776.47 ($99.25), and $1067.65 ($600.92), respectively, and mean (SD) indirect costs for these categories were $23.85 ($20.44), $83.49 ($65.06), $119.27 ($32.59), $238.54 ($87.35), and $357.81 ($73.00), respectively. The findings of this research indicate that patients diagnosed with prostate cancer must bear high costs at advanced stages of the disease, whereas in the early stages of the disease, the medical costs are relatively low. The health system of Iran should work to prevent patients from reaching the metastatic stages of the disease by implementing a suitable screening system for timely diagnosis of the disease and its effective treatment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.