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Establishment, maintenance, and biological roles of non-CG methylation in plants.

Authors
  • Kenchanmane Raju, Sunil K1
  • Ritter, Eleanore Jeanne1
  • Niederhuth, Chad E1, 2
  • 1 Department of Plant Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, U.S.A.
  • 2 AgBioResearch, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, U.S.A.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Essays in biochemistry
Publication Date
Oct 11, 2019
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1042/EBC20190032
PMID: 31652316
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Cytosine DNA methylation is prevalent throughout eukaryotes and prokaryotes. While most commonly thought of as being localized to dinucleotide CpG sites, non-CG sites can also be modified. Such non-CG methylation is widespread in plants, occurring at trinucleotide CHG and CHH (H = A, T, or C) sequence contexts. The prevalence of non-CG methylation in plants is due to the plant-specific CHROMOMETHYLASE (CMT) and RNA-directed DNA Methylation (RdDM) pathways. These pathways have evolved through multiple rounds of gene duplication and gene loss, generating epigenomic variation both within and between species. They regulate both transposable elements and genes, ensure genome integrity, and ultimately influence development and environmental responses. In these capacities, non-CG methylation influence and shape plant genomes. © 2019 The Author(s).

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