In order to highlight the potential erythromycin immunomodulatory properties related to different antibiotic resistance patterns in Streptococcus spp., we evaluated the influence of the macrolide on the PMNs primary functions against erythromycin-susceptible (Ery-S) and erythromycin-resistant (Ery-R) S. pyogenes strains. A total of 438 S. pyogenes were isolated over the period 2005-2007. On the basis of the triple disk testing, 345 out of 438 S. pyogenes isolates were Ery-S and 93 were Ery-R; among the resistant strains, 65 displayed the cMLSB phenotype, 23 had the M phenotype and 5 had iMLSB phenotype. Concerning antibacterial activity of PMNs, our results showed that erythromycin did not modify bacterial uptake, but significantly increased the phagocyte intracellular killing, compared with controls, for both Ery-S and Ery-R strains. Consequently, this report underlines that in immunocompetent hosts the dichotomy between the in vitro resistance and clinical trial data for antimicrobial agents should be thoroughly re-evaluated.