ERp29 was recently characterized biochemically as a novel protein that resides in mammalian endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here we applied immunochemical procedures at the cellular level to investigate the hypothesized role of ERp29 in secretory protein production. ERp29 was localized exclusively to the ER/nuclear envelope of MDCK cells using confocal immunocytochemistry and comparative markers of the ER lumen, ER/Golgi membrane, nuclei, and mitochondria. A predominant association with rough ER was revealed by sucrose-gradient analysis of rat liver microsomes. Immunohistochemistry showed ERp29 expression in 35 functionally distinct cell types of rat, establishing ERp29 as a general ER marker. The ERp29 expression profile largely paralleled that of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), the closest relative of ERp29, consistent with a role in secretory protein production. However strikingly different ERp29/PDI ratios were observed in various cell types, suggesting independent regulation and functional roles. Together, these findings associate ERp29 primarily with the early stages of secretory protein production and implicate ERp29 in a distinct functional role that is utilized in most cells. Our identification of several ERp29-enriched cell types suggests a potential selectivity of ERp29 for non-collagenous substrates and provides a physiological foundation for future investigations.