Erosion process of calcium hydroxide cements was examined for 7 days by chemical analysis of eluates and observation of structural change of the eroded cements when the cements were immersed in water at 37 degrees C. The elution of salicylate from the set cements as well as that of Ca continued during the immersion time. In the early stage of the erosion, unreacted Ca(OH)2 was preferentially extracted from the cements in comparison with Ca-alkyl salicylate chelate of the cement matrix. The elution rate of N-ethyl o- and p-toluene sulphonamides, which were contained as plasticizer, was higher than those of Ca and salicylate. Insoluble inorganic filler remained at the surface of the cements after extraction of unreacted Ca(OH)2 and disintegration of the cement matrix. Types of salicylate ester seemed to affect the cement durability.