Bone quality is a significant indicator of the result of bone treatments. However, information regarding the quality of regenerated bones is limited. The study investigates the effect of different compositions of vacuum heated epigallocatechin gallate-modified gelatins sponge (vhEGCG-GS) on the quality of regenerated bones in critical size defects (9 mm) of rat calvariae. Five different compositions of vhEGCG-GSs containing the same amount of EGCG and different amounts of gelatin were tested. Following four weeks after implantation, the harvested regenerated bones were evaluated by using micro-computed tomography analysis, histological evaluation (hematoxylin-eosin and Villaneueva Goldner staining), picrosirius red-staining with polarized microscopic observation for collagen maturation, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy microscopy and imaging analysis for mineral-matrix ratio. The results indicated that increasing content of gelatin in the vhEGCG-GSs promoted bone and osteoid formation but yielded porous bones. Furthermore, tissue mineral density decreased and the maximum mineral-matrix ratio increased. In contrast, vhEGCG-GSs containing smaller amount of gelatin formed mature collagen matrix in the regenerated bones. These results suggest that the alteration of composition of vhEGCG-GSs affected the bone forming capability and quality of regenerated bone and provides valuable insight for the fabrication of new bone substitute materials.