A monoclonal antibody to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor of A431 cells was obtained after fusion of immunized BALB/c mouse spleen cells with NS-1 myeloma cells. Specific binding of the antibody to the plasma membrane of A431 cells was demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. The antibody did not react with human KB cells, normal rat kidney cells, or Swiss 3T3 cells. The antibody is an IgG3K; it specifically immunoprecipitated a Mr approximately 170,000 protein from radiolabeled A431 cell extracts. This protein is phosphorylated in a EGF-dependent manner in intact A431 cells and in Triton X-100-solubilized plasma membranes. The specificity of the interaction of the antibody with the Mr = 170,000 protein was confirmed by electrophoretic transfer of A431 cell proteins to nitrocellulose followed by incubation with the antibody and 125I-protein A. When 125I-EGF was covalently cross-linked to its receptor, the 125I-EGF-receptor complex was specifically precipitated by the antibody. The monoclonal antibody did not inhibit the binding of 125I-EGF to its receptor in intact A431 cells and also failed to stimulate the phosphorylation of the Triton X-100-solubilized EGF receptor. The results indicate that the antibody and EGF bind to different sites on the EGF receptor. The antibody will be useful for isolating the EGF receptor in an unactivated form.