Rotator cuff (RC) disease is frequent and represents a common source of shoulder pain. The aim of this study is to analyse geographical differences in RC surgeries from 2001 to 2014 in Italy, a country with universal and free health care for its population. An analysis of the Italian National Hospital Discharge records from 2001 to 2014 was performed. These data are anonymous and include patient's age, sex, domicile, region of hospitalization, length of the hospitalization and type of reimbursement (public or private). National and regional population data were obtained from the National Institute for Statistics (ISTAT) for each year. During the 14-year study period, 390,001 RC repairs were performed in Italy, which represented a mean incidence of 62.1 RC procedures for every 100,000 Italian inhabitants. Nevertheless, the incidence was very different if every single regional population is considered individually. Lombardy resulted to have the highest number of surgeries during the 14-year study period, with 27.95% (108,954) of the total national procedures performed in the 2001-2014 time span. More than half the surgeries (52.00%) were performed in only 3 regions of the northern part of Italy. This study shows the existence of geographical disparities in access to RC surgery and patients' necessity to migrate among regions in order to obtain it. Southern regions of Italy are characterized by a lower number of surgeries compared to the northern part of Italy.