Helicobacter species were detected in the feces of wild rodents captured in Qiemo and Ruoqiang in the Xinjiang-Uygur autonomous region of China by polymerase chain reaction and 16S rRNA partial sequence analysis. Forty-four wild rodents, including one Przewalski's gerbil (Brachiones przewalskii), three Northern three-toed jerboas (Dipus sagitta), one long-eared jerboa (Euchoreutes naso), 34 midday gerbils (Meriones meridianus), two short-tailed bandicoot rats (Nesokia indica) and three great gerbils (Rhombomys opimus), were examined. Epidemiological studies indicated that Helicobacter spp. were detected in all genera tested; that H. hepaticus, H. apodemus, H. canadensis, and H. winghamensis were widespread in wild rodents; and that the dominant Helicobacter species in rodents differed depending not only on the order or genus of the animal but also on the animal's habitat. H. bilis, H. pylori, H. rodentium and " H. suncus" were not detected in any animals. It appears that the wild rodents tested in this study are not a reservoir of H. pylori infection.