This epidemiological survey includes the study of human and animal leptospirosis in New Caledonia from clinical cases as well as a systematic serological study about exposed human and animal populations. The results show that this disease is endemic on the whole territory with a few important focuses in agricultural area, especially on the Western coast. Leptospira icterohemorrhagiae is the main serotype and is responsible for serious human leptospirosis. The male farmers constitute the most exposed population, especially from March to May, end of the host season. In order to reduce the importance of this disease, it is desirable that the farmers are vaccinated and mass media campaigns are necessary to improve the prevention.