Ongoing transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF) was assessed in five Samoan villages by measuring microfilaraemia (Mf), circulating filarial antigen (CFA) and antibody prevalence. Compared to the other villages, Fasitoo-Tai had a significantly higher Mf prevalence (3·2%), CFA prevalence (14·6%) and antibody prevalence in children (62·0%) (P<0·05). Puapua had a significantly lower CFA prevalence (2·5%), no detectable Mf-positive individuals and significantly low antibody prevalence in children (7·9%) (P<0·05). Siufaga, previously believed to be LF-free, recorded >1% CFA prevalence and a high antibody prevalence in children (46·6%). Overall, antibody prevalence in children appeared to reflect the transmission dynamics in the villages and, in Siufaga, identified an area of ongoing transmission. The Filariasis Cellabs Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (CELISA), based on recombinant antigen Bm14, to detect antibodies, could potentially be a promising diagnostic tool for inclusion in future surveillance in the South Pacific.